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Thousands worldwide to march for science April 22

Scientists and science enthusiasts in Toledo are preparing to join colleagues in more than 400 cities across the globe in a March for Science on Earth Day, Saturday, April 22.

The Toledo Satellite March is being sponsored by the Northwestern Ohio Chapter of the Association for Women in Science and Imagination Station.

In addition, several UT student groups, including the Biology Graduate Student Association, Careers in Science, the Environmental Graduate Student Association, Experimental Psychology Graduate Student Association, the Graduate Student Association, and the Rocket Subunit of the American Fisheries Society, will participate in the March and host activity tables.

Starting at 10 a.m., a rally will be held at International Park. Speakers at the rally will include Dr. Tom E. Brady, founder of Plastic Technologies Inc. and sponsor of the Brady Engineering Innovation Center at The University of Toledo; Dr. Cecelia M. Adams, retired assistant superintendent of Toledo Public Schools and member of the Toledo City Council; and Nick Dulaney, a UT junior studying physics who recently helped discover a new star and is the lead author in a published research paper.

After the rally, marchers will cross the Martin Luther King Bridge and walk to Imagination Station, where there will be a variety of hands-on activities and teach-ins meant to engage the public. Activities will include performing DNA isolation from check cells and making seed necklaces, giant soap bubbles and edible gummy worms.

WNWO NBC 24 Meteorologist Kimberly Newman will be there for some weather simulations. In addition, Imagination Station will have an egg drop inside the science center, which is free for children in Lucas County on Saturdays.

“Scientists, by and large, are driven to observe the natural world. We carefully record the what, when and where in order to understand the how and why of life’s mysteries. The scientific process is the tool we use to accomplish this,” Dr. Susanne Nonekowski, president of the Northwestern Ohio Chapter of the Association for Women in Science and UT associate lecturer of medicinal and biological chemistry in the College of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, said.

“Unfortunately, science and scientific evidence is being used in ways that undermine its value. This has created a culture of mistrust and outright contempt for evidence-based research. This shift has perpetuated a new public attitude that any scientific evidence that disagrees with an individual’s personal beliefs should be ignored, discredited and most frighteningly, outright suppressed. It is this growing perception that science is based largely on personal opinion rather than reproducible scientific fact that has fueled the March for Science here and across the world.”

The March for Science is supported by more than 800 reputable, nonpartisan organizations, including the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the American Public Health Association, Sigma Xi and Earth Day Network.

“Those participating in the march will come from all walks of life; all races, religions, gender identities and sexual orientations. They will have different political perspectives, different nationalities and socioeconomic backgrounds. However, they will be united in their support of science education and scientific research,” Nonekowski said. “Their love of science has led them to advocate for using scientific evidence to help guide public policies. The mission of the march is to share and highlight the contributions of science and to inspire future generations to uphold the values of curiosity, free speech, free inquiry and critical thinking.”

UT advocates for science research as Earth Day nears

As Earth Day 2017 approaches, The University of Toledo is hosting a series of events to connect with science enthusiasts and interested citizens of all ages about the vital role science plays in all lives.

The Northwestern Ohio Chapter of the Association for Women in Science (AWIS) is co-sponsoring the March for Science in downtown Toledo along with Imagination Station this weekend to correspond with the national March for Science in Washington, D.C., in celebration of science’s contributions to society.

“Our love of science has led us to advocate for using scientific evidence to help guide public policies,” said Dr. Susanne Nonekowski, associate lecturer in the Department of Medicinal and Biological Chemistry and president of the AWIS Northwestern Ohio Chapter. “The mission of the march is to share and highlight the contributions of science and to inspire future generations to uphold the values of curiosity, free speech, free inquiry and critical thinking.”

The March for Science rally in Toledo will begin at 10 a.m. Saturday, April 22, at International Park. The march starts at 11 a.m. Participants will walk together across the Martin Luther King Bridge and end at Imagination Station. Interactive activities, which include UT student groups presenting Asian carp, algal bloom, physics, astronomy and chemistry research, will start at 11:30 a.m. at tables outside Imagination Station.

Speakers at the 10 a.m. rally include Dr. Tom E. Brady, founder of Plastic Technologies Inc. and sponsor of the Brady Engineering Innovation Center at The University of Toledo, and Nick Dulaney, a junior studying physics at UT who recently helped discover a new star and is the lead author in a published research paper regarding the discovery.

Several UT scientists are traveling to Washington, D.C., this weekend to participate in the national March for Science, including bird expert Dr. Henry Streby, UT assistant professor in the Environmental Sciences Department and ornithologist.

“This is a critical time for science in our country and around the world,” Streby said. “Ignoring or belittling science comes at a high cost to our society and our planet in the long run.”

UT will hold its 17th annual Earth Fest Tuesday, April 18, from 10 a.m. to 3 p.m. on Centennial Mall.

The event, which is run by student organizations that include Building Ohio’s Sustainable Energy Future and the Society of Environmental Education, will focus on practicing sustainable habits and protecting the soil, water and air. Activities will include a bag and bottle swap, spring plant fair, giant Jenga, solar-powered boat races, a wind turbine, and prizes of Chipotle gift cards.

The UT Lake Erie Center will host an open house Thursday, April 20, from 5 to 7 p.m. The public is invited to experience live demonstrations, tours of the facility and a scientific poster show to learn about the wide variety of algal bloom and invasive species research being done by UT scientists. The UT Lake Erie Center is located at 6200 Bayshore Road, Oregon, Ohio.

“Water quality research at the Lake Erie Center is currently focused on the effects of excess nutrient runoff into the western basin of Lake Erie,” said Dr. Tim Fisher, geology professor, chair of the Department of Environmental Sciences, and interim director of the Lake Erie Center. “The excessive nutrients foster algae growth, some of which is toxic and known as harmful algal blooms, which is being studied by Dr. Tom Bridgeman. Dr. Daryl Dwyer’s lab works with a variety of agencies to engineer and build wetlands to remove excessive nutrients before reaching the lake.”

The UT College of Engineering will hold its Senior Design Expo Friday, April 28, from noon to 3 p.m. on the first floor of Nitschke Hall. Seniors in engineering will display and demonstrate their senior design projects.

The next Saturday Morning Science program will be Saturday, April 29, at 9:30 a.m. in Memorial Field House Room 2100 and feature the topic, “From the Stone Age to Today: Why Do Humans Love Music?” The free event is open to the public.

The Saturday Morning Science lecture series presented by the College of Natural Sciences and Mathematics features presentations on a broad range of topics in science and technology.

Pharmacy camps to prepare high school students for future careers

Do you know a high school student with a strong academic background in science, who is considering a career in pharmacy? If so, the UT College of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences is offering the Pharmacy Summer Camp, sponsored by Walgreens, or the Shimazu Pharmaceutical Science Camp, sponsored by Shimadzu and supported by Amway.

The camps are targeted at juniors, but both sophomores and seniors may apply. The focus of the camps is to teach high school students more about their potential occupations through interactive and hands-on activities.

“We hope students learn about careers in pharmacy, and we encourage them to follow through on their goals,” said José Treviño, director of transfer services and recruitment for the College of Pharmacy. “The College of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences currently employs three faculty members who started their careers by attending our pharmacy camps.”

Programming for the four-day camps includes professional job shadowing, pharmaceutical science and formulation labs, faculty presentations, and student and career panels. When they are not learning about pharmacy, campers can spend their free time at the Student Recreation Center and touring the UT campus with camp counselors, who are pharmacy students.

The summer camp $400 fee covers all room and meal expenses, a T-shirt and backpack, as well as the camp programming. Those who demonstrate financial need may apply for assistance, the details of which are provided on the camp’s webpage.

The Pharmacy Summer camp sponsored by Walgreens will hold two sessions:

• Sunday, June 11, through Wednesday June 14, and

• Sunday, June 18, through Wednesday June 21.

The Shimazu Pharmaceutical Science Camp will take place:

• Sunday, June 18, through Wednesday June 21.

For more information about the camps and for the application, click here.

Physician/author to discuss health and race

Being black can be bad for your health — Dr. Damon Tweedy wrote about hearing that as a first-year medical student at Duke University in 1997.

His book, “Black Man in a White Coat: A Doctor’s Reflections on Race and Medicine,” became a New York Times Bestseller and was one of Time magazine’s top 10 nonfiction books in 2015.

Tweedy

“From the beginning of life to the very end — and everywhere in between — African Americans continue to experience disproportionately worse health outcomes,” Tweedy said. “You can name pretty much any disease, and you’re likely to find that it’s either more common in black people; black people who get the disease have a worse course; or both of these conditions. There are a lot of factors involved with this, and I explore many of them in my book.”

Tweedy will discuss race and health disparities Thursday, Feb. 16, at 7 p.m. in Collier Building Room 1200.

For several years, the assistant professor of psychiatry at Duke University Medical Center and staff physician at the Durham Veteran Affairs Medical Center has written and lectured on race and medicine. His articles have been published by The New York Times, the Chicago Tribune and The Washington Post, as well as by several medical journals.

In his book, he wrote, “Whether it is premature birth, infant mortality, homicide, childhood obesity or HIV infection, black children and young adults disproportionately bear the brunt of these medical and social ills. By middle age, heart disease, diabetes, stroke, kidney failure and cancer have a suffocating grip on the health of black people and maintain this stranglehold on them well into their senior years.”

“I wanted to put a human touch to these issues of racial health disparities — examining how this impacts real people in everyday life,” Tweedy said. “Many people are more likely to engage in these issues when they are presented as stories rather than simply as statistics.

“I also wanted to explore some of the unique challenges faced by African-American doctors — a largely unexplored perspective in popular medical narratives,” he added.

His free, public talk is sponsored by We Are STEMM, a UT organization dedicated to empowering and inspiring students from underrepresented populations who are interested in science, technology, engineering, math and medicine. Led by faculty and staff, the group celebrates and supports diversity in several UT colleges: Natural Sciences and Mathematics; Engineering; Medicine and Life Sciences; Nursing; Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences; and Health and Human Services.

“I found Dr. Tweedy’s book to be inspirational. While it reveals a story often heard in the community of underrepresented groups pursuing higher education, I think he has been able to deliver many aspects in a manner that may be enlightening and perhaps more palatable to those freed from this ‘experience,’” said Dr. Anthony Quinn, assistant dean for diversity and inclusion in the College of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, and chair of We Are STEMM.

“In contemporary society, there is the perception that history can be wiped clean with a single piece of new legislation — no need to deal with lasting psychological scars inflicted by past overt and covert policies or the entrenched social norms that are retained and vigorously guarded for generations in spite of new laws,” Quinn continued. “Dr. Tweedy brings out the adverse and lasting impact that discriminatory practices can have on individuals and society long past the time of those who initially implemented them.”

Tweedy’s talk is one of the University’s events scheduled for Black History Month.

UTMC sets path forward to serve health-care needs of community

After a thorough review during the past year, The University of Toledo leadership has determined that the UT Medical Center will continue to operate as a teaching hospital, serving the community in South Toledo.

utmc-still-copyIn addition to reviewing UTMC operations, service lines, efficiencies and its customer base, UT leaders studied the rapidly evolving health-care market to determine the most viable path forward for the medical center. They also took into account the change going on at the University, in the industry and in local communities.

“In a rapidly changing industry such as health care, it was imperative that we take the time to thoroughly review our operations, the community we serve, and the dynamics of the health-care market. We needed to be sure we could successfully adapt to the changing environment we live in and continue to serve our 80,000 neighbors effectively,” UT President Sharon L. Gaber said. “We have confidence in our team, and we appreciate the patience everyone exhibited while we worked toward determining this path forward.”

A letter sent to the UT community Jan. 24 from Gaber and Executive Vice President for Clinical Affairs Christopher Cooper noted the hospital’s financial strength and stated UTMC was operating at full or near-full capacity, and together with its clinics served nearly 300,000 people last year.

“The financial health of UTMC played a key role in our analysis, and we want it to be clear that the hospital remains viable only if it continues to enhance its productivity and efficiencies going forward,” the letter stated.

UTMC will continue to be a teaching hospital for UT’s colleges of Medicine and Life Sciences; Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences; Nursing; and Health and Human Services.

In addition, the path forward will include gradually adding more primary care and behavioral health options at UTMC to meet the evolving health-care needs of the community and to strengthen the University’s training programs.

“We are committed to evolving in a way that keeps our hospital strong, and as we do so, to communicating with you ahead of any changes,” the letter stated.

UTMC leaders are meeting with employees throughout the week to provide more information and answer questions. The schedule for information meetings is:

Tuesday, Jan. 24
• UTMC employee meeting at noon in Health Education Building Room 100

• College of Medicine and Life Sciences faculty meeting at 5 p.m. in Health Education Room 100

• UTMC employee meeting at 6:30 p.m. in Health Education Building Room 105
• UTMC employee meeting at 7:45 p.m. in Health Education Building Room 105


Wednesday, Jan. 25

• UTMC employee meeting at 7:45 a.m. in the Pinnacle Lounge

• College of Medicine and Life Sciences students and residents meeting at noon in Health Education Building Room 100

Thursday, Jan. 26
• UT Physicians employees meeting at 11 a.m. at Glendale Medical Center

Additional information is available online on the myUT portal under the new UTMC tab.

To submit questions or comments, email UTMCquestions@utoledo.edu or call 419.383.6814.

Distinguished educator to deliver commencement address Dec. 17

Toledo native Dr. Timothy Law Snyder, president of Loyola Marymount University in Los Angeles, will present the keynote address at the UT fall commencement Saturday, Dec. 17, at 10 a.m. in Savage Arena.

Snyder, who will receive an honorary degree during the ceremony, will address 2,066 candidates for degrees: 93 doctoral, 584 master’s, 1,346 bachelor’s and 43 associate’s degrees.

Snyder

Snyder

The ceremony will be streamed live at http://video.utoledo.edu.

Snyder is a distinguished American educator and academic administrator whose career includes success as a computational mathematician, musician, published scholar, lecturer and podcaster. He attended Toledo Public Schools and graduated from UT in 1981 with bachelor’s degrees in both psychology and mathematics. Additionally, he earned a master’s degree in mathematics from UT in 1983.

Snyder also holds a second master’s degree, as well as a doctoral degree, in computational mathematics from Princeton University.

“We’re honored to have Dr. Timothy Snyder return to his alma mater as our fall commencement speaker,” said UT President Sharon L. Gaber. “His career is proof that goals can be multidirectional, and success follows people who work hard to make lasting contributions, no matter what career paths they choose over a lifetime.”

In 2014, The University of Toledo Alumni Association recognized Snyder with its College of Natural Sciences and Mathematics’ Outstanding Alumnus Award.

“I return to my hometown with pride and excitement to deliver the keynote commencement address. My educational path and career were profoundly shaped by my years at UT,” Snyder said. “I continue to resonate with UT’s mission to improve the human condition and advance knowledge, among its other values. I hope to inspire graduates to pursue their life goals with creativity and integrity.”

Snyder has held academic positions at Berklee College of Music in Boston, the Wharton School at the University of Pennsylvania and at Georgetown University, where he was chair of the Department of Computer Science and its first dean of science. Additionally, he served as dean of the College of Arts and Sciences at Fairfield University in Connecticut and vice president for academic affairs at Loyola University Maryland. In 2015, Snyder was appointed the 16th president of Loyola Marymount University in Los Angeles.

He has published and presented widely on his research, which includes computational mathematics, data structures, design and analysis of algorithms, geometric probability, digital signal processing, computer music, and the education of the millennial generation. More recently, he has been researching risk assessment in commercial airline safety, as well as HIV and its prevention.

A musician most of his life, Snyder was lead singer in the touring rock-and-punk band Whirlwind from 1976 to 1983. His music can be found on iTunes and SoundCloud. He is also active in social media through his Twitter handle @LMUSnyder.

The University’s fall commencement ceremony will recognize graduates from the colleges of Arts and Letters, Business and Innovation, Judith Herb College of Education, Health and Human Services, Medicine and Life Sciences, Natural Sciences and Mathematics, Nursing, and Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences.

Additionally, UT’s College of Engineering will hold graduation ceremonies for its undergraduate and graduate candidates Friday, Dec. 16, at 5:30 p.m. in Savage Arena.

For more information, visit utoledo.edu/commencement.

UT awarded federal innovation grant to invest in academic researchers throughout northwest Ohio

The U.S. Department of Commerce awarded The University of Toledo $500,000 to help launch startup companies, move ideas to market, and spur job creation through faculty research.

Nearly $15 million was given to 35 organizations from 19 states through the Economic Development Administration’s Regional Innovation Strategies program. 

Business Hlogo 1c BlackThe total available to researchers in the northwest Ohio region is nearly $1.3 million after the University matched the i6 Challenge grant with an additional $767,903 through the Rocket Fuel Fund.

Researchers from academic and other nonprofit institutions are eligible to receive funding.

“This is an incredible opportunity for UT faculty and academic researchers throughout the northwest Ohio region to apply for this funding and help move their new technologies toward commercialization, including women and minorities who are typically underrepresented in innovation and entrepreneurship,” said Anne Izzi, licensing associate at UT’s Office of Technology Transfer. 

The selected recipients of Rocket Fuel grants will be awarded between $5,000 and $50,000 each to enhance the scope or patentability of inventions and improve market potential through targeted research, customer discovery, and development of a prototype and business model.

“The Regional Innovation Strategies program advances innovation and capacity-building activities in regions across the country by addressing two essential core components that entrepreneurs need to take their ideas to market: programmatic support and access to capital,” U.S. Commerce Secretary Penny Pritzker said. “As America’s Innovation Agency, the Commerce Department has a key role to play in supporting the visionaries and job creators of tomorrow. Congratulations to today’s awardees who will make U.S. communities, businesses and the workforce more globally competitive.”

Dr. William Messer, professor in the UT Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, plans to apply for i6 Challenge grant funding as his lab creates a drug to help autism patients make new patterns of behavior to live a more normal life. 

“There is a lot of work to do, but we would like to move this compound into clinical trials to see if it can help treat restricted and repetitive behaviors associated with autism,” Messer said. “We are exploring a number of options to obtain the funding needed to develop the patented technology, and the i6 Challenge grant represents an important new source of funding at the local level.”

A total of 215 organizations applied for the grant funding; these included nonprofits, institutions of higher education and entrepreneurship-focused groups.

“The 2016 Regional Innovation Strategies grantees will reach a variety of communities and help entrepreneurs gain the edge they need to succeed,” said Jay Williams, U.S. assistant secretary of commerce for economic development. “The diversity in programs and regional representation proves that innovation and entrepreneurship are igniting all corners of the country and is a recognized tool for economic growth and resilience.”

Professional development events available to UT women in science fields

University of Toledo female students, staff and faculty interested in science, technology, engineering, mathematics and medicine (STEMM) fields are encouraged to take advantage of upcoming Association for Women in Science (AWIS) opportunities.

AWIS logo“The Association for Women in Science is the largest multidisciplinary organization for women working in STEMM,” said Dr. Susanne Nonekowski, associate lecturer in the Department of Medicinal and Biological Chemistry and president of the AWIS Northwestern Ohio Chapter. “These events are designed to support equity and full participation of women in all science-related disciplines and across all employment sectors.”

A workshop for preparing a professional social media profile titled “How to Craft the Perfect LinkedIn Profile in 30 Minutes” will take place Wednesday, Nov. 2, from 4 to 5:30 p.m. in the Martin Conference Room of the Frederick and Mary Wolfe Center on Health Science Campus.

awis flyerMary Jo Borden, practicum coordinator in the College of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, will share best practices for creating a presence online and explain how to use LinkedIn’s search functions to build a professional network. A photographer also will be on hand to take professional headshots.

“This workshop will be valuable to students, faculty and staff,” Nonekowski said. “Whether you are new to LinkedIn or if it has been a while since you updated your profile, this event will have you looking your best online.”

The group also is seeking individuals interested in becoming members of its Mentorship Circle.

“We are looking for anyone interested in connecting with other women in the STEMM fields in order to build relationships and learn from those who were once in their shoes,” Nonekowski said. “Mentors can be from any science-related career field, whether academic or professional. We want individuals who are motivated and interested in supporting other women as they grow in STEMM careers.” 

Mentors and mentees will be paired according to career interest and meet once a month throughout the academic year.

“The Mentorship Circle is in the planning stages, but we want to be sure that everyone who is interested has the chance to join us before mentoring teams are established,” she said. “There have been several successful Mentorship Circles across the country, and we are excited to bring this program to the Toledo area.”

Nonekowski said UT is an institutional partner with AWIS, which means any undergraduate or graduate student enrolled in a STEMM field can register with the organization for free at awis.org/utoledo. When registering, students should be sure to choose the Northwestern Ohio Chapter to be notified of local activities.

“We are grateful to the University for their support of AWIS,” Nonekowski said. “This partnership is instrumental to the support of female science students and professionals across northwest Ohio.”

For more information about AWIS, to join the Mentorship Circle, or to register for the LinkedIn event, call 419.530.1979 or email susanne.nonekowski@utoledo.edu.

Association for Women in Science workshop to be held Oct. 7 on Scott Park Campus

Dr. Joan Herbers, professor of evolution, ecology and organismal biology at Ohio State University, will share her insights at an Association for Women in Science Mentoring Circle Workshop Friday, Oct. 7, in Classroom Center Room 1080 on Scott Park Campus.

Herbers

Herbers

There will be two sessions to choose from to hear Herbers, who is the immediate past president of the Association for Women in Science: from 10 a.m. to 1 p.m. or from 2 to 5 p.m.

Registration is required for the free, public workshops. To register, visit utoledo.edu/centers/eberly.

The Association for Women in Science Mentor Circles meet regularly to share advice and encouragement, focusing on career growth and problem solving, and are guided by mentors to promote productivity.

Dr. Susanne Nonekowski, UT associate lecturer of medicinal chemistry and president of the Association for Women in Science northwest Ohio chapter, is responsible for bringing this workshop to The University of Toledo.

“Susanne has only been president of the local Association for Women in Science chapter for a few months, but she is really driving our organization trying to bring exciting and productive events to northwest Ohio, building our membership, and acknowledging our founders,” said Dr. Caren Steinmiller, UT associate lecturer of pharmacology and secretary of the local chapter of the association.

Any questions can be directed to susanne.nonekowski@utoledo.edu.

UT researchers receive funding to study link between kidney disorder and cardiovascular disease

Researchers at The University of Toledo are examining how a genetic kidney disorder also increases the person’s risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke.

Dr. Wissam AbouAlaiwi, assistant professor in the Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, received a three-year, $231,000 Scientist Development Grant, and doctoral student Hannah Saternos received a $2,000 award from the American Heart Association to study the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease in polycystic kidney disease (PKD).

Dr. Wissam AbouAlaiwi and doctoral student Hannah Saternos both received grants for their research examining how a genetic kidney disorder increases a person’s risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke.

Dr. Wissam AbouAlaiwi and doctoral student Hannah Saternos both received grants for their research examining how a genetic kidney disorder increases a person’s risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke.

PKD is a genetic disorder that causes numerous fluid-filled cysts to grow in the kidneys, ultimately destroying their architecture and reducing their function over time. These cysts also are associated with the development of high blood pressure and problems with the heart and blood vessels in the brain.

“There is currently no cure or treatment for PKD. A kidney transplant can buy an individual more time, but patients with PKD will still usually die from cardiovascular complications such as high blood pressure and heart disease,” AbouAlaiwi said.

AbouAlaiwi and his team are studying a cellular organelle called primary cilia and its role in kidney and cardiovascular disease.

“Primary cilia are antenna-like structures that, until recently, were believed to have no function in the body. We now know they contribute to dozens of genetic disorders and play a role in calcium signaling in heart cells, which is important to its contraction,” he said. “We have developed mouse models to further study these cilia and the complications that arise from their dysfunction.”

This is the third grant for AbouAlaiwi’s lab in one year, and he is quick to credit his team of students for their hard work and dedication.

“The students are very reliable and passionate and the driving force behind the research,” he said. “Funding for research is very competitive, and I am proud that Hannah was able to receive support from the American Heart Association. She is very talented, smart and dedicated to her work. The award is well-deserved.”

Saternos is researching the function of a family of receptors that she recently discovered in the primary cilia and how it affects PKD and regulates blood pressure.

“If you would have told me four years ago I would be working with the kidney and loving it, I would have thought you were crazy,” she said. “It’s fascinating. I don’t think people realize how much impact the kidney has on the rest of the body.”